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The Reading and Writing development process


During Early Literacy Development the child / learner develop introductory or preceding skills in written language awareness such as:

  • writing concepts,
  • word concepts and
  • alphabetic knowledge (Justice & Ezell, 2004:186).

These skills are mainly acquired during the reading of storybooks.

With increasing attention to letters the child / learner experience the following milestones of the functions of letters:

  • the use of letters arranged in different ways,
  • the different shapes of letters,
  • combinations of letters that form words and
  • decoding of words.

Reading is divided into two parts:

  • decoding and
  • comprehension.

Decoding refers to:

  • the look and sound of the letter,
  • how the letter is written and
  • how it is combined with other letters and recognized.

Comprehension relies on:

  • verbal and
  • visual language comprehension (Gough en Tunmer 1986:7).



Gough, P. B. & Tunmer, W. E. 1986. Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7:6-10.

Justice, L. M. & Ezell, H. K. 2004. Print referencing: An emergent literacy enhancement strategy and its clinical applications. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 35:185-193.